Sunday, May 24, 2020

Sociocultural Theory Of Second Language Acquisition

The sociocultural theory of second language acquisition has provided me with the strongest reasons for reconsidering my previous views on second language learning. Vygotsky proposed a sociocultural theory that is very influential within the field of second language learning. The focus was on the idea that all learning is primarily social. The connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they interact with one another are crucial. Through interaction in shared experiences new knowledge is obtained. This perspective emphasizes the social nature of learning and examines the complex and dynamic social interaction involved in the process of learning a second language. According to Vygotsky the cognitive and social processes in acquiring a second language are inseparable. Social interaction has a vital role in the process of cognitive development. Individuals start out in society and culture and only become individualized when they separate themselves from what is taki ng place. Learning takes place in sociocultural contexts and behavior is learned by reacting to other people. Information is gained first socially and then becomes internalized. Vygotsky thought that learning took place on two different levels. Learning took place on the first level by interacting with others and then on the second level information is internalized into the individual’s mental structure. He talks about two different functions inter-mental and intra-mental. IntermentalShow MoreRelatedSociocultural Theory And Second Language Learning902 Words   |  4 PagesSociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning â€Å"Language is the most pervasive and powerful cultural artefact that humans possess to mediate their connection to the world, to each other, and to themselves† [Lantolf Thorne 2006:201]. The idea of mediation inherent in this notion of the language is a fundamental element of Sociocultural Theory [SCT], one of the most influential approach to learning and mental development since 1990s’, drawing on its origin from the work of soviet psychologistRead MoreLanguage Acquisition : The Perspective And The Cognitive Perspective1348 Words   |  6 PagesIn concern to English language acquisition, there are several methods for the most effective way English Language Learners (ELLs) understand and retain new information. The two main camps concerning language acquisition are the sociocultural perspective and the cognitive perspective. From there, there have been many frameworks and theories that have stemmed from these two perspectives: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP), Krashen’s input (comprehension) and monitor approach, Vygotsky’sRead MoreSociocultural Theory And Second Language Learning1856 Words   |  8 PagesSociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning â€Å"Language is the most pervasive and powerful cultural artefact that humans possess to mediate their connection to the world, to each other, and to themselves† [Lantolf Thorne 2007:201]. The idea of mediation inherent in this notion of the language is a fundamental element of Sociocultural Theory [SCT], one of the most influential approaches to learning and mental development since the 1990s, drawing its origin from the work of soviet psychologistRead MoreTheories in Second Language Acquisition by James P. Lantolf and Steven L. Thorne593 Words   |  3 PagesAcquiring second language has its impact on the social and cultural knowledge. One of the theories that concern with that knowledge is the sociocultural theory that was originated by the Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky. The theory explains how individual mental functioning is related to cultural, institutional, and historical context. SCT has three main areas. These are: interaction, ZPD, and scaffolding. Summary In chapter (11) of James P. Lantolf and Steven L. Thorne’s book â€Å"Theories in secondRead MoreThe Effects Of Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment On Student Writing818 Words   |  4 Pagesmotivation. This chapter discusses several areas in the literature and previous studies related to feedback and student writing in second and foreign language settings. This literature review begins with an overview of feedback from sociocultural perspectives. The zone of proximal development and scaffolding as the core concepts of sociocultural theory in second language (L2) writing will be reviewed. Discussion of the socioeducational model in relation to L2 writing motivation will follow. ResearchRead MoreSecond Language Acquisition And Identity Formation1531 Words   |  7 PagesSecond Language Acquisition and Identity Formation Research Question: â€Å"What role does learning a second language play in the way one shapes their identity?† Background: Identity is subjective, not only to the individual to which the identity belongs, but also the way in which others perceive identity. This means that identity is not solely an individual event, but also a social one. Without social practices, such as identifying with specific cultures and norms, how would one know with which customsRead MoreTeaching Language Acquisition For English As Additional Language Children Essay1437 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Language empowers a child to express his thoughts and desires, achieve his goals, and form relationships with others. It plays a crucial role in the cognitive, social and emotional development of the child (Berk, 2009). This report will discuss a range of pedagogical practices to support language acquisition for English as Additional Language children in context of early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand. Languages in Aotearoa. According to Statistics New Zealand 2013, 25Read MoreSociocultural Theory And Social Rules1726 Words   |  7 Pages When looking at sociocultural factors one is faced with a variety of models that attempt to provide a social explanation of how language is acquired. This includes an examination of such influences as the social characteristics of the setting and the learner and the social rules for second language use. While typically associated with these models, Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, which is based in his study of psychology, does not attempt to use culture to explain how language is acquired. InsteadRead MoreForeign Language Learning Motivation As An Integrative Factor1506 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION Foreign language learning is mandatory in some states in elementary and secondary education in the United States. During higher education, some students take language learning class at the bachelor level, however, graduates students do not follow this tendency. At the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, I have realized that the students who pursue the M.S.Ed. Program in International Educational Development incline to take a language learning course even if theRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Culture on Second Language Acquisition924 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The issue of English language learning has been always a controversial one for almost all non-English language countries around the world these days. However, it seems language learning difficulties are not restricted to those who attempt to learn English. This is the same issue when an English speaker attempts to learn another language especially the Middle Eastern or Asian Languages. There are several hypotheses and theories concerning the language learning difficulties from different

Monday, May 18, 2020

Definition of the Supply Chain Management - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3459 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? A new definition of supply chain management emerged. This involved not only the flow of products but also the flow of information and finances through the supply chain in both the directions. The information flows: From suppliers: manufacturing capacity, delivery schedules, promotions they are going to launch for specific timeframe; Reverse flows: sales, orders, inventory, quality, promotions. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Definition of the Supply Chain Management" essay for you Create order The financial flows are as follows: From suppliers: credits, consignment, payment terms, invoice; Reverse flows: payments, consignment. This led to a supply chain where there was movement of goods, information and finance in a cyclic order as shown in Figure 2. Figure : Integrated Flows of Material, Finance and Information (adapted from iwarelogic, 2010) The financial supply chain is parallel to the physical supply chain and is represented by the activities related to flow of cash, from the buyers initial order to the reconciliation and payment to the supplier. Until recently, the financial supply chain was not considered very important. The time required to process transactions was unthinkably long because of the manufacturing supply chain that was creeping with inefficiencies (Bank of America, 2009). Still the companies were prospering due to the lack of global competition and all domestic ones were filled with the same poor quality of demand forecasting limitatio ns, inefficient distribution and were missing supply chain visibility. They used the same strategy to compensate for these problems and mitigate risk against uncertain demand, excess inventory, excess capacity and surplus labour. As the cost of capital was low, reserve positions were routinely used. In other words, companies relied on the strategy of excesses (Bank of America, 2009). Today the typical financial supply chain is more fragmented and complex than the integrated physical supply chain (Bank of America, 2009). The movement of goods is faster than the movement of information and finances. Financial supply chains are important because by optimizing them companies can: reduce their working capitals by efficient inventory control and cash flow management, lower financing rates on required working capital, improve supplier relationships with and for buyers, reduce days sales outstanding and increase cash flow predictability for sellers (Bank of America, 2009). Johnson and Templar (2007) say that the structure of todays supply chains is inherently more and more complex and subject to larger number of conflicting requirements. They quote Porter (1980) and state that there are two major winning strategies for business: differentiation and cost advantage. Johnson and Templar (2007) argue that differentiation can be achieved by providing customers with a product or a service that they perceive as having a greater value, whereas cost advantage can be obtained by doing activities and processes that are more economical than the competition. Johnson and Templar (2007) estimate that around 70% of a products cost is made of costs arising out of supply chain. This shows that supply chain provides a major opportunity to reduce the product costs. Many companies are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of supply chain and are making use of key performance indicators to measure the performance of the supply chain (Ward 2004). According to Ward (2004), these indicators try to measure the output derived for each dollar invested in the chain. Although indicators such as warehouse labour cost per throughput case, transportation cost per pound shipped and line-item fill rate measure various components of the supply chain performance, none of them gives a complete overview of the supply chain performance (Ward 2004). Ward (2004) states that the complete metric that can give visibility on the supply chain performance is C2C cycle time. Farris and Hutchison (2002) support the argument saying that C2C is important as it bridges the inbound material activities with suppliers, through manufacturing operations and the outbound sales activities with the customers. C2C cycle is important to measure both from the financial accounting and the supply chain management perspectives. According to Banomyong (2005), cash conversion cycle is a powerful performance metric to assess the working capital management activities undergone by a company or a firm. A company with shorter C2C is more efficient because it turns its working capital over more times per year, and that allows it to generate more sales per money invested. With the help of proper supply chain management, a firm can improve upon the three key drivers of financial performance growth, profitability and capital utilisation (Rice and Hoppe 2001). Despite the potential of SCM, very few companies utilise it as a tool to drive financial performance. According to Lambert and Pohlen (2001), cash conversion cycle is an important financial metric as it highlights the operational performance which can be derived from information readily available in published annual and financial statements. The concept of C2C guides us to the premise that a decrease in the cash conversion cycle time will lead to financial and operational improvement. However, the C2C concept assumes that shortening of cycle time cannot be achieved without increasing costs or decreasing sa les (Soenen 1993 cited in Banomyong 2005). This has limitations as reducing the terms of credit for receivers would lead to a reduction in sales volume and revenue as a result of reduction of products attractiveness from a customers perspective. Similarly, delaying payment to suppliers will not be well received and is likely to lead to a higher cost of goods supplied. The key here is to have a balance and an optimum cash flow cycle that is not counterproductive to the intended objective. Farris and Hutchison (2002) highlight the importance of C2C cycle for understanding the effectiveness of the supply chain network. Their work tries to find the leverage points that can be achieved from the usage of the C2C cycle. C2C cycle is a composite metric that encompasses all the participants of a supply chain. Farris and Hutchison (2002) identified 3 major leverage points to manage the C2C within a firm: extend average accounts payable, shorten production cycle to reduce inventory da ys of supply, reduce average accounts receivable. Farris and Hutchison (2002) add that opportunities to reduce the cycle of cash in supply chain management exist at the seams outside of the four walls of the firm where they interface with their customers, tier 1, and tier 2 suppliers. In a subsequent work Farris et al (2005) suggest that C2C strategies in a supply chain environment promise to improve efficiency between trading partners, profitability, and cash flow management.  One important aspect of SCM involves increasing the efficiency of capital movement throughout the entire supply chain. It all depends on how fast the goods move through the supply chain. The faster the goods move through the supply chain, the quicker the members will be paid, which increases cash flow. The C2C calculation involves three key financial pointers from the balance sheet: inventory, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The next step is the calculation of net sales and cost of good s sold from the income statement to convert the financial pointers in terms of days. The result will be a positive or negative number of days. A number greater than zero tells us how many days a firm has to borrow or tie up capital while it waits for the payment from a customer, whereas a number smaller than zero shows how many days the firm received cash from sale of goods before payment to suppliers is made. In order to identify opportunities that could benefit all parties, it is important that there is constant information-sharing that permits comparison among C2C trading partners. Specifically, the supply chain can optimise inventory as well as receivable and payable terms to reduce costs to increase operating profit and cash flow. It is a fact of life that almost all businesses have working capital tied up in receivables and inventory. Interestingly, according to a report by CIMA (2009), many of the UKs big supermarkets chains, for example, have negative working capita l. This means that while the customers pay in cash, the stock is provided by suppliers on credit often on very generous terms. This means that at any given time, the supermarket has excess cash that can be used for expansion or process improvement or simply for reinvestment to earn interest. According to a report by Consultancy firm REL as cited in CIMA (2009), in response to the global recession: the supermarkets were paying suppliers more slowly to artificially bolster their balance sheets. But in doing so theyre often damaging supplier relationships and creating gains that cannot be sustained over time. A typical European company takes over 45 days to pay its suppliers nearly a day and a half longer than last year. Hingley (2005a) in his paper tries to explain the issue of power in the context of the UK agri-food industry vertical business-to-business relationships and further states that the majority of power and control lays in the hands of large multiple retailers. Hingley (2005a) further states that the supply chain members closer to the markets always benefit more than those away from the markets. He gives the proof of this by stating that those members of the UK food supply chain closer to market have benefited from at least inflationary growth, which has seen the value of retail sales reach approximately  £118 billion; with market leader, Tesco taking  £28 billion (Tesco 2004 cited in Hingely 2005a). At the heart of the discussion by Hingley (2005a) is the nature of the relationship between farmers, food suppliers and retailers. As mentioned by Farris and Hutchison (2002), working capital ratios such as the cash conversion cycle are composite performance metrics for assessing how well a company is managing its capital. These key numbers express operational performance in financial terms and can be derived from information readily available in published financial statements (Lambert and Pohlen 2001). For example, a company with a lower cash conversion cycle is more efficient because it turns its working capital over more times per year, and that allows it to generate more sales per money invested. The result of this working capital issue is reduced inventories, faster receivables collection and extended payment terms with suppliers. There is a looming question from the perspective of supply chain management: Who control the supply chain and how much influence they have? Large and powerful companies can enforce their terms with smaller companies, which in turn impose their terms with those smaller than them (Rafuse 1996 as cited by Padachi 2006). Small and powerless supply chain actors have little influence in the situation, in which they are providing a lot of net funding to their larger customers believing strenuous collection effort could jeopardize their sales volume. Similarly in the case of debtors, aggressive collection action by influential supply chain actors only succeeds in transferring resources from the ir smaller customers. As a result, often smaller and powerless companies of the value chain must pass on their increased borrowing and administrative costs, though they sometimes go bankrupt in the efforts. Why is it not possible to manage financial flows in the same way as flows of goods in a collaborative manner? Despite the potential of SCM, relatively few companies utilise the approach as a tool to drive financial performance in a collaborative way (Simatupang and Sridharan 2005). The aim of this study is to understand the relationships between the bigger and smaller partners of a supply chain when each firm is trying to achieve negative cash conversion cycle. C2C, though being a composite metric (Farris Hutchison 2009) to measure the effectiveness of the supply chain, still deals with the working capital management of a single firm in a supply chain. The aim of this study is to explore the C2C that exists for different participants in the supply chain of dairy and milk s ector in the UK and explore the nature of the relationships when the primary/bigger member of the supply chain is trying to improve its cash conversion cycle. In order to explore further, the following research questions were formed: What are the implications for the smaller members of the UK milk supply chain where the biggest member has a very short cash conversion cycle? What type of relationships exists between the supply chain members? Sector Background According to the DairyCo (2010) report on the UK dairy supply chain, the majority of the output of the UK dairy industry is packaged for direct consumption by the consumer and over 73% is produced in consumer packs. Major retailers are the industrys most important link before reaching to the final customers. Other major customer segments include wholesale distributors, catering outlets, institutional customers, traders and export customers. The industry still sells direct to the consumer around 3 million pints of milk a day in returnable glass bottles through the doorstep delivery service. Around 5% of raw milk ultimately ends up with the consumer by this route. The sale of food and drink for consumption out of home is a growth market, along with the ingredients sector, which covers the use of milk products as an ingredient in the food processing industry. According to a report by Spedding (2009), an Arthur Rank Centre project, the UK dairy farmers produce just over 13 billion l itres of milk each year, which is processed into a variety of dairy products. The report further adds that the manufacturers of dairy foods in the UK are working hard to increase the proportion of products. Liquid milk, which takes up almost half the market, has evolved from whole fat milks to skimmed and semi-skimmed products (Spedding 2009). The Spedding (2009) report states that since 2004 the annual total milk production in the UK has been decreasing and this is expected to continue in the short term due to a variety of factors. The most important of them is the lack of confidence of the farmers. If the efficiency is compared of the UK and EU farms, the UK farms stand apart. Also they can be competed against other non-EU farms like that in the USA (Spedding 2009). However, the UK dairy farms still cannot match the efficiency achieved by the New Zealand dairy farmers (Spedding 2009). The RuSource report identifies that majority of dairy farms are still essentially family busin esses, between 70% and 75% are owner occupied and between 20% and 25% are tenanted. Dairy farm incomes were recovering in the recent years as quoted by Spedding (2009) report. However, recent profitability has not been enough to meet the long term re-investment requirements of running the farms (Spedding 2009). There is a considerable divergence in the cost efficiency between the most and the least efficient dairy farms, which shows that many of the farmers are into milk farming as a lifestyle choice and not with a business intention. On one side, the proportion of the UK milk supply accounted for by lifestyle farmer is falling rapidly as they reach retirement. On the other side, there are business minded individuals who require a competitive rate of return on the capital; otherwise they will take their capital and expertise elsewhere. The efficiency of the business can be improved at a short notice by improving and implementing good farm management techniques. But in order to be a sustainable business in the longer term, cost efficiency requires fixed costs to be spread over a larger scale of operation. This means that there is a direct correlation between farm size and efficiency. This shows that the future of the UK dairy farming is in becoming competitive and having large scale of operations and economies of scale. The level of milk production in the UK is affected by many factors. According to Blackburn and Lott (2008) of Kite Consulting, the key factors that drive whether a farmer stays in milk business or not, and if they do stay in milk business, whether they expand or not, are: ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ milk price; ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ cost of production; ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ confidence in future milk prices; ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ milk price: feed price ratio which affects sentiment; ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ non-dairying alternatives e.g. arable cropping; ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ higher stock prices creating an opportunity to cash in on a high (Blackburn and Lott 2008). Retailer decisions on milk sourcing are based on price, but also on the security of supply, provenance, traceability, service levels and sustainability. This offers significant opportunities for producers and processors to work together to take out costs and capitalise on other specific supply chain opportunities to create value for all links of the chain. Methodology Overview The aim of the dissertation is to look at a supply chain and analyse the cash conversion cycle of the individual players and understand the implications of the cash conversion cycle on the small suppliers. For these it was imperative to select a supply chain which has not been previously studied from this perspective. According to Yin (2003), when there is little known about the research topic and when it is an exploration to research, case studies are the best methods to move forward. The UK Dairy Supply chain was selected to analyse the research topic through. In order to achieve overall understanding of the business, all the players of the supply chain were studied. Data gathering was done using the published company and industry reports. Data was also collected from the various public surveys undertaken to study the UK dairy farmer morale and future intentions. During the data analysis phase, efforts were made to explore the contractual structures existing between the differ ent players and the implications of the cash conversion cycles of the respective player. Overview of Dissertation Chapters A comprehensive literature review has been carried out and key findings from the literature will be presented in Chapter 2. The first section involves the discussion of the cash conversion cycle, the advantages of C2C as a supply chain metric and finally the criticism of the C2C. The second section will include the discussion on the current state of dairy industry in the UK and the organisation of the dairy supply chain in the UK. The next section will include the discussion of the focus supermarket supply chain and the different actors involved in the supply chain. Chapter 3 will contain the detailed description of the methodology of this research, the various approaches for data collection and sources of data collection. Chapter 4 will show the calculation of the cash conversion cycle for the members of the UK milk supply chain. This chapter will also deal with the analysis of the contracts existing within the case supply chain. Chapter 5 will include the discussion of t he findings and analysis from the previous chapter. This chapter will also present the discussion on relationships that exist between the different supply chain actors resulting from the contract structures. Data from various public surveys will be used to understand the relationships between the different supply chain actors. Chapter 6 is the conclusion that this research study tries to reach. This chapter also contains sections related to limitations of this study, the scope for future research and also the contributions this study makes to the academic research literature. Literature Review In the next few sections a thorough literature review is conducted to explain and understand the concept of cash conversion cycle, also the advantages and the criticism of it. A study of the factors affecting the UK Dairy Industry and the UK dairy supply chain is also undertaken to understand the relationships between the different supply chain actors. Cash Conversion Cycle According to Farris et al (2005), cash conversion cycle metric is an important measurement tool which can be used to bridge the management of firms and functions in a supply chain that can be used by management to improve firm liquidity position and overall firm value. From the work of Farris et al (2005), measuring C2C helps in identification of the strengths and weakness in a supply chain. This is because the C2C gives use the measure across time that is truly consistent. This helps in identifying the leverage points and the opportunities to improve. Finally, C2C is a measure that can be used to optimise the entire supply chain. As the field of supply chain management continues to evolve, the C2C metric is one of the currently available measurement tools to transform the relationships between firms and functions of the supply chain into a value chain by helping to synergistically optimise the entire process through a systems approach. C2C can be easily calculated and provides the difference based on days from when suppliers are paid and payment is received from customers (Farris et al 2005). Subsequently, C2C analysis can be done and generalised to compare companies and industries by common traits. There has been much research on the working of C2C and its utilization to increase the value created by the supply chains. Beed (1981) as cited in Farris et al (2005) recommends using C2C to deal with problems related to account receivables. Byers et al (1997) cited in Farris et al (2005) support using C2C to manage the current assets that deal with daily operations of a firm. Farris and Hutchison (2002) in their paper, propose opportunities for extending C2C as a benchmark for supply chain management.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The American Response - 1361 Words

America’s two most recent wars are the Iraq War and the War on Terror. Both of these wars have accomplished their goals, but come at a great cost. There were quite a few factors in both of these wars that affected international security. First, I will analyze both of the wars and then intertwine them together to show the overall effect they have created on America. Let us look first at the War on Terror. The War on Terror started after the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda attacked America on September 11th 2001. America responded with a military offensive against terrorist groups in Afghanistan. The primary targets in Afghanistan were Al-Qaeda and the Taliban. Many scholars agree with what America did in this situation. In Robert J Art’s†¦show more content†¦The question of whether the use of force served the long-term interest of the United States in the War on Terror is a debatable question. There is no denying that the United States has significantly affected Al-Qaeda and its acts of terrorism. Victory in the War on Terror however, will not end similar to how World War Two ended on the deck of the USS Missouri. From a military standpoint the United States is winning the War on Terror, but from a financial standpoint the United States is losing. Long down the road the American taxpayer will be paying for the substantial cost of the War on Terror. The Iraq war began because of Iraq’s supposed breaking of United Nations Security Resolution 1441. It was believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. UN Security Resolution 1441 was Iraq’s final chance to comply with their weapons of mass destruction disarmament obligations. Iraq did not comply. The United States and Great Britain believed that Iraq was a serious threat to international security. An Iraq with weapons of mass destruction posed a threat to Great Britain, the United States well-being and to allies around the globe. Let us not forget that Saddam Hussein, the l eader of Iraq during the Iraq War had a history of affecting international security. Saddam Hussein started the Iraq-Iran War and invaded Kuwait. Saddam also played a major part in systematic genocide of his own people and some were subjected to chemical attacks. It isShow MoreRelatedThe American Plague Summary/Response1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Plague The American Plague was written by Molly C. Crosby, who is as much as a researcher as she is an author. In 1648, a slave ship returning from Africa carried a few mosquitoes infected with a deadly virus know as yellow fever. The ship landed in the New World and thrived in the hot wet climate and on the white settlers. The New World has never come in contact with yellow fever and as a result no immunities have been built up. The virus obtained its name from the way it turns theRead MoreResponse to The American Scholar Essay example721 Words   |  3 PagesJulia Mitri English 31 Novick 18 September 2011 Ralph Waldo Emerson’s â€Å"The American Scholar† Post- Reading Response In Ralph Waldo Emerson’s 1837 address to the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard, called â€Å"The American Scholar†, he makes clear his thoughts and ideas on the European cultural and cerebral influence on America. Emerson wanted to get across that American scholars needed to create their own independent American literature and academic world, separate from European history. Emerson usesRead MoreReader Response Journal : Reader Response Chapters Of American Dreams1499 Words   |  6 PagesReader Response Journal #1 Chapters 1-3, pages 1-24 â€Å"But we reservation Indians dont get to realize our dreams. We dont get these chances. Or choices. Were just poor. Thats all we are.† (Pg.13) I think that thE author is trying to show that by growing up on the Spokane Indian Reservation, Junior has developed an idea in his head that he cant be anything other than poor. He realizes that his parents had dreams to be something â€Å"other than poor† but there was never anyone to pay attention toRead MoreResponse Paper to Betrayal of the American Dream1085 Words   |  5 PagesI’ve always been an optimistic person, but while reading The Betrayal of the American Dream, I felt so much of that optimism drain out of me. Prior to this, I had mistakenly believed there was a difference between the two political parties in that one of them actually had the people’s best interests at heart. I began to question that belief in recent years, and Barlett and Steele killed whatever faith I had remaining in it. The more I read the book, the more I wanted to find something that wasn’tRead MoreCrisis Response Time for American Red Cross Essay1254 Words   |  6 Pages (1) Since the writing of this case, the American Red Cross (ARC) is on record as having conceptually addressed its infrastructure and operational hurdles. However, very few strides have been made to reverse stakeholder perception crisis response time, relief dispatch strategies, and the ethical dilemmas plaguing the organization. Governmental mandates that streamlined the board and that established accounting /reporting parameters have done little to modify the organizations operational cultureRead More Response to The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s 1408 Words   |  6 PagesPaula Fass’s The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s delves into the social and cultural climate of the 1920’s middle-class youth in America. Fass observes the multidimensional dynamics of the post-World War I society as citizens adjust to pertinent matters such as industrialization, prohibition and immigration. Amidst the ongoing social, political and economic al issues of the early twentieth century, youth played an active role in contemporary life. Adolescents responded to issuesRead MoreResponse to Turners Essay on The Significance of the Frontier in American History501 Words   |  3 PagesResponse to Turners Essay on The Significance of the Frontier in American History Turners The Significance of the Frontier in American History essay presents the primary model for comprehending American history. Turner developed his notions on the uncovering of the 1890 census that the frontier was coming to an end, that the nation had occupied its continental borders. As Turner discusses in his essay, an extensive era of American development approached an ending, butRead MoreNlrb On Behalf Of Mrs. Dawn Vs. American Medical Response Of Connecticut Company Essay881 Words   |  4 PagesCase Title : NLRB on behalf of Mrs. Dawn vs. American Medical Response of Connecticut Company Case number: 34-CA-012576 Date Opened: 01/19/2010 Status: closed Presentation of the Case The case filed by NLRB was between the American Medical Response of Connecticut in New Haven and one of their employees called Mrs. Dawn. Upon verbal disagreement with her supervisor, Mrs. Dawn posted a negative remark on her private facebook wall about the supervisor. The remark attracted comments from herRead MoreNlrb On Behalf Of Mrs. Dawnmarie Vs. American Medical Response Of Connecticut Company Essay881 Words   |  4 PagesCase Title : NLRB on behalf of Mrs. Dawnmarie vs. American Medical Response of Connecticut Company Case number: 34-CA-012576 Date Opened: 01/19/2010 Status: closed Presentation of the Case The case filed by NLRB was between the American Medical Response of Connecticut in New Haven and one of their employees called Mrs. Dawnmarie. Upon verbal disagreement with her supervisor, Mrs. Dawnmarie posted a negative remark on her private facebook wall about the supervisor. The remark attracted commentsRead MoreHow and Why Did American Popular Culture Influence Australian Society in the 1950s and 1960s? To What Extent Did Australia Develop its Own Response to these Influences?1595 Words   |  7 Pagesand 1960s were times of unprecedented change, and Australian society was influenced greatly by American popular culture, through various mediums, such as: music, film, television and fashion. This especially affected teenagers. It will be explained how Australian society was impacted by American popular culture, and also why American popular culture had such an affect. Australian developed its own responses to these influences, and the extent of this will also be explored. The 1950s meant the emergence

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cadbury Dairy Milk 4cs 4ps Swot - 8150 Words

C O N T E N T S 1) SITUATION ANALYSIS i) COMPANY ii) CONTEXT iii) COMPETITOR iv) CUSTOMER 2) BARND 3) 4 Ps i) PRODUCT ii) PRICE iii) PROMOTION iv) PLACE 4) COMMENTS 5) SWOT ANALYSIS Product Category: Chocolate Confectionary Brand: Cadbury Product: Cadbury Dairy Milk (CDM) SITUATION ANALYSIS (4 CS) 1) Company: Parent Company: Cadbury plc Indian Subsidiary: Cadbury India Ltd (CIL) History of Cadbury: Cadbury plc is a confectionery and beverage company with its headquarters in London, United Kingdom, and is the worlds largest confectionery manufacturer. The firm was formerly known as Cadbury Schweppes plc before demerging in May 2008, separating its global confectionery business†¦show more content†¦Therefore, they strongly believe that those people who create these products should also have fun while doing so. At Cadbury India they have mini business teams which are structured teams that work on critical areas relating to manufacturing. CIL’s goal is clear. They want a Cadbury Dairy Milk in every Indian’s pocket. 2) Context: Availability of Cocoa: Chocolate consumption is gaining popularity in the country on increasing prosperity coupled with a shift in food habits, pushing up the country’s cocoa imports. Annually, India produces 10,000 tonnes of this cocoa crop. India’s annual cocoa demand is pegged around 18,000 tonnes during the current year, which would necessitate import of 8,000 tonnes i.e. around 45% of its total requirement. This is 4 times the amount India imported in year 2001-02 (2,027 tonnes). This clearly indicates the rising demand for cocoa as well as the increasing deficit in the availability of cocoa. This is the reason; farmers are being encouraged to cultivate cocoa to meet the deficit. India plans to increase cocoa production by 60% to 16,000 tonnes in next four years to meet rising demand from the 15-billion-rupee chocolate industry and to cut dependency on costlier imports. Majority of Indian farmers cultivate cocoa as an intercrop in coconut and areca nut gardens. The total area under cultivation was 32,360 hectares in 2006/07. There is huge scope for expanding acreageShow MoreRelatedCadbury Schweppes Plc3853 Words   |  16 PagesOutline of Report 4 3.1 Marketing Report for Cadbury Schweppes 3.2 Current Market Analysis 5-7 3.3 BCG Matrix 8-9 3.4 Igor Ansoff Matrix 10-11 3.5 SWOT Analysis 12-13 3.6 Product Life Cycle 14-15 3.7 Porter’s Generic Model 16-17 3.8 Marketing Mix 18-20 4.1 Evaluation and Recommendation 21-23 5.1 Research, references and bibliography 24 Cadbury Schweppes Plc. Cadbury Schweppes is one of the biggest beverage and confectionery

Animal Ancestry The Field Of Anthropology Essay

Ryan Schueneman Intro to Anthropology Rachel McTavish 05 December 2016 Animal Ancestry Within the field of anthropology, there are various subsections that deal with specific branches of knowledge. Zooarchaeology, specifically, is a division of archaeology that deals with the remains of an animal after it has died. Much knowledge can be gleaned about various aspects of the animal itself, as well as the world surrounding it, through the study of zooarchaeology. The following will discuss the history of zooarchaeology, the methods of study utilized within this branch of anthropology, as well as summarize a recent zooarchaeological finding that has impacted anthropology. There is not much history since this field is fairly new. Zooarchaeology is a blend of biology and anthropology, it has been evolving as a study for over a century and a half. In the mid-19th century, anthropologists were beginning to ask questions that had had no precedents, and they had to figure out a way to find the answers and salts. They started to become aware that to fully understand anthropology and cultures of the past, they must embark on gaining biological knowledge. This biological knowledge was no longer limited to human remains, because it was becoming more evident that many answers could be found in observing animal fauna. As Elizabeth J. Reitz notes in her book Zooarchaeology, â€Å"the anthropological or historical orientation of archaeology is an important source of diversity and zooarchaeology.Show MoreRelatedAnthropology and Its Branches1728 Words   |  7 PagesAnthropology is the study of human beings, in particular the study of their physical character, evolutionary history, racial classification, historical and present-day geographic distribution, group relationships, and cultural history. 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This better understanding up theRead MoreCultural Anthropology : Physical Anthropology3800 Words   |  16 Pagesglossary Anthropology: It is a general comprehensive science of man in the past and present of any culture. This is divided into two main areas: physical anthropology, dealing with biological evolution and physiological adaptation of humans, and social or cultural anthropology that deals with people living in society, ie forms of evolution of language, culture and customs. Anthropology uses tools and knowledge produced by the natural sciences and the social sciences. Aspiration of anthropologicalRead MoreDefending Slavery Essay2484 Words   |  10 Pageshis medical practice treating slaves and specialized on what they called â€Å"negro diseases† wrote a report to the Medical Association of Louisiana called: â€Å"The diseases and physical peculiarities of Negro race† . Cartwright’s report described about anthropology and origin of the races providing a biblical interpretation. This paper was clearly based on mere physical observations made on his medical practice rather than scientific evidence. The information about anatomy and physiological reactions of blackRead MoreA Critical Review of Catalhoyuk: a Leopards Tale3659 Words   |  15 Pagesdemography, patterns of exchange and production, history and myth, individuality and the community. Hodder identifies four spheres of activity which he used as the basis of his explanations and discussions throughout the book; domestic activity, exchange, ancestry and community. These spheres are separate to some extent but are inextricably linked. Production was primarily domestic rather than communal. According to Hodder, every household was self-sufficient. Each household was responsible for its own

Benchmarking and Lean Six Sigma

Question: Discuss about the Benchmarking and Lean Six Sigma. Answer: Introduction: Benchmarking for any organization is an approach to measure the quality of the guidelines, goods and the tactics that a company uses which is further compared with the standard measurement or with the same measurement of its peers (Business Dictionary, 2017). Main objective of benchmarking process is to identify that where exactly improvements are required in the organization and it also helps in evaluating the performance level of other organization and then use this approach to increase the performance of the company (Wood, 2009). It can also be defined as a practice used by business to compare the significant metrics with other similar companies (Rowena, 2011). This approach can be used by all the companies, be it private, public or any industries such as technological, educational and many others. There are many companies that use either positions or offices that take charge of the benchmarking in the organization. These positions are of researchers which include both institution al as well as market researcher. Other positions include the information officer, consultant, and the data and business analysts. Companies basically use this technique to become more competitive as they can easily analyze their performance and can improve their operations by comparing with different company. Some different kinds of benchmarking are peer benchmarking, SWOT analysis, collaborative benchmarking and by the best practices of different organization (Ifeoluwa and Yinchang, 2010). There is another method which helps in increasing the performance of the organization and that is Lean Six Sigma technique (Jesse, 2017). Lean six sigma is basically a combination of Lean and Six sigma which is an improvement method. These both methods together give a better result than used individually (Brady and Allen, 2006). When these two methods are combined it gives a wide-ranging tool to increase the speed of any process in the organization which results into the increase in revenue, reduction in costs and improvement in teamwork (Pepper and Speeding, 2010). Lean basically creates value for the customers by minimizing the waste and six sigma reduces the defects by just successfully resolving the problems in the organization. And together it solves the problems and improves the process (George, Dave and Amy, 2007). Six sigma also reduces the quantity of substandard products that are manufactured and provides the satisfaction to the customer (Thoms and Okafor, 2008). Now days it is very common for an organization to face the rising costs and competition every day, so this method sanctions the organization to figh t these problems and helps in the improvement of business (Qun, 2013) There are many benefits that an organization enjoys by using this method and these are, it increases the profit and decreases the cost by removing waste from the process, improves the efficiency and the effectiveness of the process, develops effective employee by involving them in the enhancement process and develops a sagacity of ownership for the employees (Assarlind, Gremyr, and Bckman, 2012). Both the benchmarking and lean six sigma techniques can be applied to business change process. Benchmarking involves several steps that help in the change of the business process. These steps are custom-made based on the policies of the company, funds and the projects that organization is dealing with (Ronald, 2010). First step involves the understanding of the companys current process performance, as it helps in deciding where benchmarking is required. Second step should be from the leadership team as there should be proper support and approval as this will assist and provide adequate resources and will accelerate the benchmark process. Third step is all about the document benchmarking which sets the objective and scope for the organization which is essential for any project. Forth step involves the documentation of the current process as without the knowledge of current process all the time and resources will be wasted in collecting process documentation, and there will also be difficulty in comparing the collected benchmarking data with the requirements. Fifth step involves the benchmarking measurements that are used for the comparisons so that gap between the current performance and that of the partner organizations can be determined. In this step organization has to agree on the primary metrics. In the sixth step all the metrics should be put in the writing which includes the requirements involved in the measurements, what has to be measured and what not. Next step involves the agreement in which everyone must be involved on what to benchmark. Further a plan has to be developed to collect data and research sources are identified which will initiate the data gathering. Next step includes the designing of screening which has to be surveyed to assist with partner selection and then screening of companies takes place. Information about the companies is gathered and is met with the original objectives that will determine the performance gaps. Last step involves the implementation of plan with the process owner so that successful business process change c an occur (CGMA, 2017). Lean six sigma technique can also be applied for the business change process. This process is an effective methodology that is used to fix the problems and includes 5 phases. In the first phase, problem is defined and the requirements needed to satisfy the customer is also demarcated. Second phase involves the collection of data of the current process and is measured. Third phase is important as it includes the investigation on what causes the problems in the organization. Next phase includes the improvement process in which implementation of plan takes place which will solve the problem. And last phase includes the control on that implementation results which should be sustainable. This process works for all the businesses whether it is small or large and same success can be achieved within both the large and small organization. This process provides benefit to the organization as it improves the customer loyalty. By implementing this method there is a reduction in the risk of havin g dissatisfied customers. It also helps in the time management as employees manage their time effectively which results into a more competent business. This method also plays an integral role in the strategic planning of the business and even helps in the supply chain management (Harris, 2013). There are many organizations that have used benchmarking and lean six sigma methods to improve their processes. One such company is Microsoft. This company realized that there has to be change in the business structure and the processes that a company uses in order to make improvements. One of the senior managers VP understood that Microsofts sales and marketing division could be made more competent by using six sigma methods. The senior manager observed the issues when he was reviewing the annual budget but he wanted to prove it empirically before any change could be made. Hence he asked for the data from the travel office so that he could track the overstated payments and the unapproved charges employees made in a month. After the results were revealed he was surprised to know that the results were in a positive way and the sales staff of Microsoft was honest enough towards the organization and the overstated charges were only few dollars. Now VP was ready to implement the change. His new policy stated that the sales staff could only submit their expenses through credit cards and there would not be any review and the staff would get back their expenses in two days rather than getting in ten days. Consistent performance is corrupted by the variations. Therefore, experts should identify variations by using lean six sigma and reduce it whenever possible. But a company like Microsoft who recruits number of staff every year did not have time for implementing new processes. Improvements in an organization while changing business process can only be achieved by valid measurements and data and this explains that the process of investigation must be backed up by the accurate data and the facts. This changed process should benefit the customers, identify and should be able to understand the value stream and manage the flow of the process. All the non-value waste should be removed and the improvement activity should be passed on in a systematic way. After the six sigma review, VP decided to concentrate on the micro issues that company was facing. He identified that the filing expenses was complex and company was able to reduce the staff that were getting expenses by 25 percent. Hence it was recommended that sales staff were only required to pay expenses by credit cards. Ever decision in the organization has some risks which should be calibrated before making a decision. And there are also chances that when a change is occurred in the company it can end up creating more waste than efficiency which can be reduced with the help of lean six sigma. In this case study of Microsoft it was noticed that VP was taking a risk by implementing this method. VP was leaving the expenses system to abuse by reducing the stages of expenses process which also included the checks and the balances. Here it is also important to note that the new process was also implemented successfully as VP commissioned further more checks and it was also revealed from the internal au dit that there was no rise in the overstated expenses. This is how Microsoft used lean six sigma and managed to bring out the change in the business (Gordon, 2015). There are also many organizations that can use either benchmarking or lean six sigma model to change in their process. One such company is Motorola that has to develop some change in their process. Many customers have issues with this company related to time as Motorola does not deliver products on time and is unresponsive company to do business with. Hence Motorola should benchmark from Dominos pizza or Federal Express so that there is improvement in the delivery process. Motorola should implement the Total Cycle Time as the process which is taking three weeks to complete will only take one week. Hence Motorola should adopt benchmark process. First a company should decide what exactly they want to benchmark and then there should be any change in the organization. Motorola should understand the current performance of their organization and should analyze as where a change is required and then follow the strategies of other companies (Wheelen, Thomas and Krish, 2006). For this there should be a proper planning of what has to be benchmarked and how it should be benchmarked. This planning should be well planned and has to be in favor of the company because many times when an organization tries to implement change in their business it backfires the company itself. So Motorola should plan before implementing any change in their organization (Quality Magazine, 2003). As Motorola is having issues with the time so they should study other organization practices and the systems which they want to benchmark. Dominoes is very virtuous with their delivery so Motorola should benchmark this company and follow the same practices what they uses so that there will be less issues with timings (Word press, 2008). To follow the strategies of dominoes, Motorola should gather the data of their company as well as the benchmark company and then a comparison should be made so that it becomes easier and clear for the company to follow the strategies of other companies. And at the Motorola should use the findings and use them in order to enjoy the benefits of the change process in the business. There are many benefits that Motorola might enjoy if benchmark is practiced as there will be reduction in cost and productivity of this company will also increase. Beside all this there will be also be long term benefits which are improved quality of the organization. This will surely help Motorola company to maintain the quality products of their company and delivery of the products will also be improved. Benchmarking will also help Motorola to identify the gap between the present situation of the company and where it would like to be upcoming years. There are many types of benchmark that Motorola can use and it is up to the top management what they prefer for the company and the benchmarking that management uses will definitely be beneficial for the company it is applied correctly. If Motorola has to be competitive in market then it should follow benchmarking and achieve the world class competitive capabilities. References Assarlind, M. Gremyr, I. and Bckman, K. (2012),"Multi-faceted views on a Lean Six Sigma application". International Journal of Quality Reliability Management. Vol. 29 Iss: 1 pp. Brady, J.E. and Allen, T.T. (2006) Six sigma literature: a review and agenda for future research". Quality and Reliability Engineering International. Vol. 22, pp. 335-67. Business Dictionary, (2017). Benchmaking. [Online] Business Dictionary. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/01/17]. CGMA. (2017) Benchmarking. [Online] CGMA. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/17/01]. George, B. Dave, L. and Amy, B. (2007) "Using a Lean Six Sigma approach to drive innovation". Strategy Leadership. Vol. 35 Iss: 2 pp. 5 10. Gordon, J. (2015) How Lean Six Sigma can improve your business. [online] The Leadership Network. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/01/17]. Harris, A. (2013) 6 unexpected ways Six Sigma can benefit your company. [Online] PEX. Available at: [Accessed on: 24/01/17]. Ifeoluwa, A. and Yinshang, T. (2010) The Adoption of Benchmarking Principles for Project Management Performance Improvement. International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies (IJMPICT). Vol. 1, No. 2. Jesse, W. B. (2017) Improving Lean Six Sigma Process with Lean Six Sigma. [Online] i Six Sigma. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/01/17]. Pepper, M.P.J. and Spedding, T.J. (2010) "The evolution of lean Six Sigma", International Journal of Quality Reliability Management. International Journal of Scientific Engineering Research. Volume 4, Issue 5. Quality Magazine, (2003. Motorola: A Tradition of Quality. [Online] Quality Magazine. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/01/17]. Qun, Z. (2013) Lean Six Sigma: A Literature Review. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. Vol 3, No 10. Ronald, D. Snee, (2010). "Lean Six Sigma - getting better all the time". International Journal of Lean Six Sigma. Vol. 1 Iss: 1 pp. 9 29. Rowena, S. (2011) Benchmarking: A Literature Review. [online] Edith Cowan University. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/01/17]. Thoms, A. B.R. and Okafor, C. (2008) "Applying lean six sigma in a small engineering company a model for change". Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. Vol. 20 Iss: 1 pp. 113 129. Wheelen, L. Thomas, DHJ. and Krish, R. (2006) Strategic Management and Business Policy. 9th edition. Pearson Education. Wood, B. (2009) 7 Steps to Better Benchmarking. [Online] Business Finance. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/01/17]. Word Press, (2008) Total Quality Management. [Online] Word Press. Available at: [Accessed on: 27/01/17].

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Premises

Question: What should be the business premises? Explain. Answer: Management ownership Names of owners: Mr. Edward JohnDetails of management ownership: Owner Mr. Edward John would be the Chief Executive Officer of the shop Poke-Burger Club. The owner would be the administrative panel for managing all the operations of the shop. The shop is under the sole ownership of Mr. Edward John. Hence, there is no option for any partnership agreement. However, the shop owner can bring in any investor or sponsor for the shop. In that situation, a proper agreement for the investment activity would be required for legalization of the investment.Experience: The business owner has a past experience of running another small restaurant at Greenfield Park of Sydney. The owner had an experience of managing the restaurant for three years. The owner used to work as a manger for two different restaurants in Greenfield and Harbour Bridge. Mr. John had successfully managed and administered the previous two restaurants and saved considerable amount of money. With the saved money the owner had o pened this new Poke-Burger Club by himself. Recruitment options Internet is the best option for advertising about the recruitment for the shop. There are 3 types of recruitment procedure Direct, Indirect and third party. The direct recruitment procedure is by far the most suitable way in which the owner would take the interview of each of the candidate separately. Training programs Since all the staffs recruited are experienced, there would be no need for training. However, if any new strategy or system is introduced in the shop, proper training and acquaintance with the strategy would be provided to the staffs. Skill Retention Strategies Compliance documentation is the best way for the procedural for retaining the skill of the working staffs. Line managers can develop strategies like Employee of the week or Best performer for motivating the employees to perform better. The responsibilities of the staffs are divided appropriately. The front manager is responsible for all the documentation and communicating with the staffs. Streamlining the operations could be used for making sure that all staff skill is appropriate for the business. Market position: The wide difference in the price of products is beneficial for attracting all class of people. The products are budgeted to the expectations of people. The prices are set lower by 5-10 cents from most of the competitors. Hence, it would be beneficial for the business of the shop. Analysing the business on these questions can yield the current market position of the burger shop. Unique selling position: Location of the shop favours the selling of the burgers. Being located near to Sydney Olympic park, the shops would receive inflow of visitors. Such positions are really helpful for new businesses as crowded place are always helpful to increase customers and sales. The USP of the Poke-burger club is the use of Pokmon cartoon character in decoration at the shop for attracting the kids in the shop. The shop name itself contains the term Poke. Anticipated demand: Fast foods like burger always have a huge demand in markets as its quickly feels up the hungry stomach of a customer. As far as the anticipated demand is concerned an individual if he likes fast foods then he will eat 4 days in a week and which may lead to around 100 burgers in 6 months and 200 in an year. If we calculate in average then a single personal buy around 60 to 80 burgers in a time span of 6 months and 120-190 in a year. Pricing strategy: Yes, I have a pricing strategy which is $4 per burger. In todays market the com petition is always high and customers always look for best offer every day. So providing the discounted price will definitely attract most of the customers. Lower price higher sale pricing strategy would be suitable for the business operation of Burger shop.Value to customer: The customers always look for value, price and quality that we provide through our products or services. They always have better expectations towards food and its quality that any burger house provides them. They take it as necessity but some of them take it as luxury and necessity both. Growth potential: As per research it has been found out that the burger products or services will have an anticipated growth of around 91%. It has wide range of tastes and varieties which attract most of the customers and will lead to business growth by introducing some more varieties in the near future. Innovation Research development (RD)/innovation activitiesIn order to start up and run a business it is always important to keep our self updated in terms of the market and products. There are lots of research and development needs to be done in daily weekly or monthly basis to understand the market and the customers demand in the selected products. Send marketing professionals to gather as much information as they can from the market regarding the product and if required helping them with some finance will help in gathering more information. Intellectual property strategy Intellectual property strategy is defined as the key asset class of strategic planning. The Poke-Burger club can use the intellectual portfolio property for the strategy. Branding is an important feature that can be used for forbidding the duplication of the product. Copyright and ownership trademark are some of the tools that can be used for intellectual property strategy of Poke-burger club.1.9b Insurance Bibliography Aaker, D.A. and Biel, A., 2013. Brand equity advertising: advertising's role in building strong brands. Psychology Press.Adrian, T. and Shin, H.S., 2014. Financial intermediary balance sheet management. In A Flow-of-Funds Perspective on the Financial Crisis (pp. 177-202). Palgrave Macmillan UK.Australia, A., 2014. Reconciliation Action Plan 2013-16.Bebbington, J., Unerman, J. and O'Dwyer, B., 2014. Sustainability accounting and accountability. Routledge.Biocca, F., 2013. Television and Political Advertising: Volume I: Psychological Processes. Routledge.Danziger, S., Hadar, L. and Morwitz, V.G., 2014. Retailer pricing strategy and consumer choice under price uncertainty. Journal of Consumer Research,41(3), pp.761-774. Ellickson, P.B., Misra, S. and Nair, H.S., 2012. Repositioning dynamics and pricing strategy. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(6), (2014). Best Burgers in Sydney: 2016 Guide | [online] Available at: t-burgers-sydney [Accessed 25 Jul. 2016].Kapan, T. and Minoiu, C., 2015. Balance sheet strength and bank lending during the global financial crisis. Available at SSRN 2247185.Lam, J., 2014. Enterprise risk management: from incentives to controls. John Wiley Sons.Marsden, T., Morgan, K. and Morley, A., 2016. Food Policy as Public Policy: A Review of the Welsh Governments Food Strategy and Action Plan.McNeil, A.J., Frey, R. and Embrechts, P., 2015. Quantitative risk management: Concepts, techniques and tools. Princeton university press.NewsComAu. (2016). Carls Jr burger restaurant to open in Bateau Bay on NSW central coast. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Jul. 2016].Peters, K., Haslam, S.A., Ryan, M.K. and Fonseca, M., 2013. Working with subgroup identities to build organizational identification and support for o rganizational strategy: A test of the ASPIRe model. Group Organization Management, p.1059601112472368.Pinnuck, M. and Shekhar, C., 2013. The profit versus loss heuristic and firm financing decisions. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 38(6), pp.420-439.PMP, R.J.C., PMSA, P. and Meyer, J., 2015. Aligning Project Success with Organizational Strategy within a Project-Based Organization.Silva, A.T., Derks, R., Roders, A.P. and Hougaard, J., 2014. Cultural heritage management and ownership regime in Island of Mozambique. 7 Fundamentals of an Operationally Excellent Management System, p.171.Skeldon, S.C., Kozhimannil, K.B., Majumdar, S.R. and Law, M.R., 2015. The effect of competing direct-to-consumer advertising campaigns on the use of drugs for benign prostatic hyperplasia: time series analysis. Journal of general internal medicine, 30(4), pp.514-520.Tarasi, C.O., Bolton, R.N., Gustafsson, A. and Walker, B.A., 2013. Relationship characteristics and cash flow variability implication s for satisfaction, loyalty, and customer portfolio management. Journal of Service Research, 16(2), pp.121-137.Yuan, H., 2013. A SWOT analysis of successful construction waste management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 39, pp.1-8.