Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Should You Really Be A Creative Writing Major

Should You Really Be A Creative Writing Major SAT/ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips So you’re contemplating studying exploratory writing! Finishing an undergrad exploratory writing project can be an extraordinary method to investigate your affection for fiction or verse and sharpen your specialty. As edifyingas an exploratory writing major can be, it may not be what you expect.Dedicated experimental writing majors are additionally very phenomenal, so in case you're focused on getting your degree in that subject, you'll have a smaller pool of potential schools. Thispost will assist you with choosing whether acreative composing major is directly for you. Highlight Image: Nilufer Gadgieva/Flickr Numerous Great Schools (with Awesome Writing Classes) Don't Have a Creative Writing Major As I referenced above, exploratory writing is a moderately uncommon major, so in case you're exclusively centered around schools with a devoted experimental writing degree, you may pass up schools that could be an extraordinary fit for you. Remember that a ton of school that don’t offer explicit majors despite everything have extraordinary chances to seek after exploratory writing, regardless of whether by finishing a minor, adding to the grounds abstract diary, or essentially taking classes. Regardless of whether you realize you need to contemplate experimental writing, tryresearching the open doors accessible at differentschools with a receptive outlook. You may be amazed by what you find! You're Going to Have to Read-A Lot I once had a companion who cherished writingbut detested perusing particularly on the off chance that he needed to dissect the content. In the event that you tend toagree with him, and would prefer to be lowered in a tank of ants than compose a paper about Virginia Woolf's utilization of imagery to remark onWorld War I inThe Waves, this course of study isn't directly for you. Most experimental writing majors are controlled by the English office, and, actually, many are uncommon tracks inside the English major. As such,they include a great deal of perusing of assorted types, including fiction, plays, verse, and artistic hypothesis. I was an English major in student, and we were relied upon to peruse a generally book seven days in each class. Some were long (I had one educator appoint the longest single volume novel in the English language) and some were short, however it indicated a great deal of books! You’ll additionally need to compose basic papers breaking down theseworks of writing in the event that you extremely just need to compose your own fiction or verse, consider studying something different and taking exploratory writing classes as electives. (Martin/Flickr) You Don't Need a Specific Major to Be a Writer Composing isn't care for designing: you needn't bother with a particular degree to seek after it expertly. The main thing that you have to do to be an essayist is to compose. Most composing employments, regardless of whether in distributing, reporting or educating, don’t require or even anticipate that you should have majoredin exploratory writing. For the couple of places that do require a composing degree, which are only in academia,you'll really require an advanced education (by and large a MFA). Considering writing in school is an incredible method to persuade you to deal with your composing andto get valuable feedback(more on this underneath), however it’s not by any means the only way. A ton of extraordinary essayists contemplated something absolutely inconsequential to composing or didn’t set off for college by any means. You Can Learn A Lot From Really Focusing on Writing So far I've concentrated for the most part on reasons you probably won't need or need to study experimental writing, however there's one generally excellent motivation to do as such: you'll invest a great deal of energy writing,talking about composition, and perusing your friends' composition. One of the key highlights of any exploratory writing major is the workshop-a little class where understudies firmly peruse and analyze each other’s work. Workshops can be extremely profitable, since they offer the open door for bunches of amendment and revamping. In any case, they additionally include a ton of analysis and can be trying for extremely delicate individuals. Considerhow you'll respond to disliking your composition or recommending approaches to improve it. Numerous experimental writing majors likewise require a capstone venture or innovative BA proposition, whichrequires you to finish a considerable bit of work that is at or close to distribution prepared. For studentswho are truly dedicated to distributing their composition, this undertaking is an important venturing stone. A few Schools Have Special Opportunities for Creative Writing Majors At schools with especially solid composing programs, majors may have the chance to go to unique readings or gatherings with writers that aren't available to non-majors. They may likewise have need for exercises like working at the scholarly diary or college press. These sorts of advantages are totally reliant on the school, in any case, so make a point to investigate the particular projects that you're keen on. Top rated writer Emma Donoghue peruses from her novel Room (London Public Library/Flickr) Last Thoughts Experimental writing majors offer a one of a kind chance to concentrate on the art of composing, however they aren't directly for everybody. On the off chance that the accompanying articulations concern you, an experimental writing major could be an incredible fit: You love to peruse and compose. You take analysis well and wouldn't fret others perusing your work. You need to seek after composition outside of the study hall just as in it. More RecommendedReading Persuaded you need to be an experimental writing major? Look at our rundown of the best student composing programs. Exploratory writing majors go on to a wide scope of employments. In case you're investigating distinctive profession thoughts, look at our aides on the best way to turn into a legal counselor and how to turn into an instructor. In case you're seeing universities, likewise look at our guide on the best way to pick the best school for you and our rundown of the best school search sites. For those of you intrigued by especially particular schools, we haveaguide to getting into Ivy League schools composed bya Harvard graduate. Need to improve your SAT score by 160points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've composed a guide for each test about the main 5 methodologies you should use to have a taken shots at improving your score. Download it with the expectation of complimentary at this point:

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Trade unions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Worker's guilds - Essay Example European worker's guild heads, alongside their 'London Declaration', considered the budgetary emergency and advance for reasonable managing and thorough activity. Handy recommendations were too made to keep this circumstance from happening once more: effective measures ought to be taken to ensure that the economy continues appreciating capital speculations, likewise to end offensive money related figure. The expansion of open assets into the economy ought to compare to open guideline, while the control of money related markets at worldwide and European levels ought to be upgraded (Satre 2005, 804). This present paper's goal is simply a reminder. While worker's guilds distinctly grow their arranging endeavors and thoughts, there stays an observable requirement for steady research on successful methodologies and procedures. It is fundamental to recognize these days that sorting out has ended up being progressively perplexing. Under the squeezing weight of weak and clumsily authorized work laws, forceful bosses harboring antiunion notions, and a continuously scary political and monetary air, it isn't intriguing that barely any specialists overcome the dangers, tensions and obstacles and keep on in reality compose an association and arrange an underlying understanding. Issues are possibly declined when work pioneers are educated over and over by their accepted partners in government and the academe that laborers are not intrigued any longer in associations yet see a progressively functional and less scary choice in the board offered support exercises. Stood up to with an inexorably hostile atmosphere, the work development has begun to focus its vitality on the single part of the sorting out component that it has control over, association systems and methods. This part centers around the methods by which laborers, regardless of whether unionized or non-unionized, are satisfactorily spoken to at work, and by which they gain contrasting degrees of voice in the dynamic of the top administration or bosses. Aside from aggregate dealing practiced by profession associations, it underscores the methods for data scattering and cooperative interview contained inside a business relationship. One reason is that an understanding of the cooperation of these frameworks of portrayal is key for a positive gathering of the current and conceivably future patterns of laborer portrayal in the United Kingdom. Specifically, it recommends that sorts of portrayal beside aggregate haggling may tentatively build up more standard voice frameworks, with managers and workers the same, than what they really have already (Wigley 2002). Previously, managers without any help settled on dominant part of choices on issue in regards to work. In various conditions, ordinarily work related issues, master or deliberately situated representatives could without any assistance control specific highlights of their working ways of life. From the last piece of the nineteenth century up until the present, aggregate haggling consistently created. In various frequencies, to safeguard

NIKE †Channel conflict

Official rundown NIKE Company that bargains in the structuring and assembling of sportswear sports things advanced from the BRS Company, which was built up in 1964 by Phil Knight. He chose to build up the organization in the wake of perceiving that the U.S. advertise was a lot of dependant on imported footwear items.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on NIKE †Channel struggle explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since at that point, the organization has developed to turn into a worldwide market pioneer in providing sports shoes to its clients. Notwithstanding of its awesome development, the organization experienced channel strife when it chose to dispatch its items to be accessible for online retail in 1999. This channel struggle was mostly because of the conflicting goals of the channel individuals, its customary channel individuals declined to stay up with the evolving times, and channel individuals neglected to achieve their commitments. Th is prompted negative effects on the viability of the channel, diminished accomplice dependability to principals, and disintegration of consumer loyalty. In this way, to maintain a strategic distance from unwanted results, the issue can be tended to enough by connecting with the administrations of an outside advisor to think of various proposed arrangements that can profit the association over the long haul. The accomplishment of the proposed arrangements can be assessed through breaking down the conduct execution of the channels and recognizing admonishing indications of inadmissible execution inside the channels. Presentation In 1964, Phil Knight, a Stanford MBA understudy, began the BRS (Blue Ribbon Sports) Company with the goal of assembling great shoes for the individuals in America. He perceived that the U.S. advertise was a lot of dependant on footwear imports; subsequently, he began exchanging these imported shoes. In the long run, the organization advanced into NIKE. Through out the following thirty-five years, the organization extended colossally. Its quick development depended on a reliable and a coherent technique: â€Å"to profit by the significance of sports in people’s lives and to be related to rivalry and triumph in buyer minds† (Stanford University, 2000, p. 1).Advertising Looking for exposition on business financial matters? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Situated in Oregon, NIKE, was separating itself as an extraordinary attire organization that planned for satisfying the differed needs and prerequisites of its clients all through the entire world. The organization grasped inner collegiality and outward seriousness in its association culture. This activity was to a great extent because of the commitment of his originator, Phil Knight. Headquartered in Beaverton, Oregon, NIKE, was separating itself as an extraordinary attire organization that planned for satisfying the dif fered needs and prerequisites of its clients all through the entire world. The organization grasped inside collegiality and outward seriousness in its association culture. This activity was to a great extent because of the commitment of his organizer, Phil Knight. The company’s promoting procedure centers around depicting it as a superior brand that exchanges classy and rich athletic gear. It draws in it overall customers by grasping a promoting procedure dependent on its image picture. This is acknowledged by having a distinctive logo just as the promoting motto: â€Å"Just do it,† and it draws clients to buy its athletic gear by building up long haul associations with uber stars, for example, Michael Jordan and Tiger Woods, and other recognized groups the world over. Likewise, its showcasing blend comprises of publicizing, supporting games, and supporting big name competitors to utilize their items. Other than the contentions that encompassed its publicizing efforts, the organization has demonstrated that it is profoundly engaged since it has given more consideration on building center corporate capacities and growing to other more up to date advertises the world over. Issue Diagnosis Similar to other customer items, the exchange athletic gear pulled in a few business people who needed to take part in web based business. Along these lines, they needed to utilize the accessible open door so as to profit by the development in innovation. Nike was not deserted in this new turn of events. Initially, the site was built up in late 1996 for the sole motivation behind cooperating with NIKE customers; there were no goals of beginning web exchanging. In any case, in the next years, the company’s web procedure changed definitely. By mid 1999, the organization began to take part in web based business by propelling a portion of its test items on the web and by the mid of that year, the organization had entered full-scale in web based busines s. Notwithstanding, as the year attracted to a nearby, the organization ended up at intersection concerning the eager web based business activity that it had propelled toward the start of the year.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on NIKE †Channel strife explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization was encountering a serious emergency of unjust divert connections that brought about channel struggle (Lamb et al., 2009).The individuals inside its dispersion arrange were not concurring in objectives and techniques to use for them to arrive at the worldwide system of NIKE’s clients (Cullorta, Lynn, n.d.) This circumstance that confronted the creator and maker of athletic gear came about when its conventional channel individuals declined to stay up with the evolving times. The appearance of web based business had constrained NIKE to make a portion of its items accessible on the web. The damaging flat channel struggle that was confronting can be credited to an assortment of conditions and factors. Normally, the emergency is seen when the distinctive channel individuals have conflicting destinations. For example, for this situation, the online retailers needed to reach whatever number purchasers as would be prudent with the items they were promoting on their sites. In any case, they were not focusing whether the items are fabricated by NIKE or its passionate rivals. By and by, Mary Kate Buckley, the head supervisor of, needed the organization to understand a focused on deals volume and piece of the overall industry inside each market section. Because of thinking of an online methodology, NIKE grasped internet business which has made its chain of business associations with other conventional retailers to scramble and become confounded. Some portion of the motivation behind why NOKIA is encountering this issue can be followed to the overproduction of its items (Dahui et al., 2006; Rosenberg Ste rn, 1970). As the organization concocts more up to date forms of its athletic gear and changes its advertising pattern, channel conflict is an inescapable outcome. Channel struggle emerges when individual channel individuals don't achieve their commitments in order to meet the desires for other channel individuals (Hardy Magrath, 1989). For example, some athletic footwear retailers were not submitting to the standards built up by NIKE. Subsequently, the nature of NIKE items was not sufficiently meeting the prerequisites of its clients. In some different circumstances, there was correspondence breakdown between the channel individuals, which prevented the suitability of the dissemination network.Advertising Searching for paper on business financial matters? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More Despite the fact that some insignificant degrees of even channel strife is advantageous for an association, when it is overseen enough, if this issue NIKE is confronting isn't adequately tended to, it can prompt a number unfortunate results (Bucklin et al., 1997; Shavit, 2007). This issue can prompt extreme negative effects on the viability of the channel (Hopkinson, 1997). The diverse channel accomplices and principals’ continues can likewise feel the touch of this issue. These unwanted results may make channel accomplices to work up. At the point when the contention is a lot of articulated, it can bring about decreased accomplice faithfulness to principals. Since for this situation, the sensitive harmony between advertise inclusion and strife has been lost, the subsequent bothersome clash can disintegrate the fulfillment of the clients concerning the results of NIKE. This is on the grounds that customers will start encountering pointless buying costs in a circumstance when t hey are constrained to manage different channels which are giving fundamentally comparable arrangements concerning deals arrangements, and as the contending channels initiate on focusing on basic techniques for winning deals in a contention circumstance, they would disregard other significant commitments. On the off chance that the issue isn't tended to adequately, it can once more into the association. In this way, it can start to influence some inside proportions of working viability and a definitive achievement of In a circumstance where a conflict influences an immediate deals power bringing about diminished profitability, an association can encounter expanded administration costs since the project leads will be constrained to oversee by special case and their will be expanded turnover since the agents will begin responding to strife (Goldkuhl, 2007). To take care of this issue agreeably, NIKE needs to draw in the administrations of an outer expert. This is on the grou nds that the expert will be repaid just for the work or time taken when taking care of the issue. This will lessen the costs of the organization since it won't need to cook for different advantages that representatives appreciate, for example, wiped out leave and paid occasions. Since the specialist won't be a representative of NIKE fundamentally, the agreement can be finished whenever without desperate results like confronting the dreaded Employment Tribunal. All the more along these lines, since the advisor has satisfactory ability in understanding channel struggle issues, the individual in question will be better positioned to deal with t

Friday, August 21, 2020

How to Say Good Morning in French Correctly

The most effective method to Say Good Morning in French Correctly SAT/ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Who hasn’t longed for eating in a lovable French bistro, plunging a croissant into a flavorful espresso, and talking with another companion over cakes? Just quelle horreur!- when you go to welcome your companion, you out of nowhere can’t recall how to state â€Å"good morning† in French. In this article, we’ll spread not just how to state â€Å"good morning† in French, yet how to deliver the welcome to various individuals, and even how to bid farewell. It's that simple! How Do You Say Good Morning in French? In the event that you realize anything in French or you’ve ever watched Beauty and the Beast, you likely skill to make proper acquaintance: â€Å"Bonjour!† Well, uplifting news †Bonjour† is additionally the standard French approach to state â€Å"good morning† In French, bonjour is articulated bon-zhoor. The French ‘j’ sound, as it’s heard in bonjour, is somewhat similar to sh in English crossed with the dg sound in â€Å"judge.† It’s not the normal â€Å"j† sound we have in English, so be certain you truly tune in to how it’s said before you incidentally welcome someone by saying, â€Å"Bone Jurr.† Truly interpreted, â€Å"bonjour† implies â€Å"good day.† â€Å"Bon† is the French word for â€Å"good,† and â€Å"jour† is the French word for day. For the most part, French individuals use bonjour as a welcome up until around six PM, so, all in all they change to another welcome, secured underneath. Notwithstanding, however we may state â€Å"good day† to welcome or bid farewell to individuals, it’s absolutely a welcome in French. We’ll spread the farewell form beneath! There is another technique for saying great morning in french: â€Å"bon matin,† articulated bon mah-high schooler. Be that as it may, however this is an exacting interpretation of â€Å"good morning,† it isn't normally utilized in France. It’s an Anglicization, or Anglicisme, that fills in as an exacting interpretation however that isn’t normally heard. Be that as it may, bon matin might be heard all the more much of the time in Quã ©bã ©cois French, the assortment of French spoken in Canada. As a rule, bonjour is the standard technique for saying â€Å"good morning.† But relying upon where on the planet you will be, you may likewise have the option to state bon matin! Strikingly, you by and large need to state bonjour to somebody once every day. Whenever you see them, you should utilize an increasingly casual welcome! Ahh, bonjour, mon ami. Customizing â€Å"Bonjour† Yet, perhaps you have a particular individual you need to state â€Å"good morning† to, or you need to get somewhat fancier. Bonjour is a straightforward welcome that can be adjusted to various circumstances! In the event that you need to be courteous and you’re addressing somebody whose name you don’t know, you can welcome them with â€Å"bonjour† and a title. French is a language with gendered things, so there are various types of address for individuals relying upon their sexual orientation: Madame is utilized to allude to wedded ladies, similarly as â€Å"Mrs.† would be utilized in English. It’s articulated mah-dahm. Mademoiselle is utilized to allude to unmarried ladies, much the same as â€Å"Ms.† in English. It’s articulated mah-dehm-wah-zell. Monsieur is utilized for men, much the same as â€Å"Mr.† in English, and is articulated something like meuh-syeuh, with the two syllables rhyming with â€Å"the.† These vowel sounds can be very dubious for non-local French speakers to ace, so invest some energy tuning in to local French speakers saying it and impersonate them. Those words can be added to the word bonjour for a legitimate â€Å"good morning† welcoming in French-†Bonjour Madame/Mademoiselle/Monsieur.† If you’re welcoming a little gathering of individuals, you can welcome them all by name: â€Å"Bonjour Isabelle! Bonjour Delphine! Bonjour Étienne!† Be that as it may, on the off chance that you need to welcome a group of people, you presumably can’t welcome them all by name. All things considered, you’d add the expression tous to bonjour, transforming it from an individual â€Å"hello† to â€Å"hello everyone!† Literally interpreted, tous implies â€Å"to all.† It’s articulated ah toos. In any case, you can get significantly fancier, on the off chance that you so want. Since bonjour is such an adaptable welcome, you can add a wide range of options to it to make it progressively explicit, for example, Expression Which means Elocution Mon love My adoration Mohn ah-moor Mama chã ©rie My darling/dear (to a lady) Mah shey-ree Mon chã ©r My darling/dear (to a man) Mohn sher Mama beauty My delightful (to a lady) Mah chime Mon lover My attractive (to a man) Mohn boh Bonsoir, Paris The most effective method to Say Goodbye and Good Night in French Separating is such sweet distress in French, you need a farewell to coordinate. â€Å"Au revoir,† articulated gracious fire up wahr, is the common French farewell. Actually interpreted, it implies something near, â€Å"Until I see you again.† You can say this whenever of day in any sort of circumstance, formal or casual. Bidding farewell at night gets somewhat trickier. The strict French adaptation of pleasant night, â€Å"bonsoir† is utilized as a welcome after around six PM. You don’t for the most part use bonsoir as someone is leaving except if the circumstance is formal-rather, you’re bound to state â€Å"bonne soirã ©e,† bohn swah-beam, which is a similar expression with female endings, when you’re wishing someone a decent night as they or you are leaving. You additionally wouldn’t state â€Å"bonne nuit,† truly interpreting as â€Å"good night† and articulated bohn nweet, except if the individual is truly hitting the hay. When all is said in done, â€Å"au revoir† is a decent universally handy farewell except if you’re searching for something increasingly explicit. All things considered, one of these different farewells may get the job done simply be sure you coordinate the right one to the circumstance, particularly on the grounds that territorial contrasts may make either progressively worthy. Watch and tune in to what others do and follow their lead! What’s Next? Need to turn into a bilingual who exceeds expectations in morning welcome? Look at this article on the most proficient method to state great morning in Japanese! Considering making French your major in school? Find out about all the reasons an unknown dialect major is a good thought (and the reasons it may not be)! In case you're still from the get-go in your language-learning vocation, look at this conversation of which unknown dialect you should take in secondary school! Have companions who likewise need assistance with test prep? Offer this article! Tweet Melissa Brinks About the Author Melissa Brinks moved on from the University of Washington in 2014 with a Bachelor's in English with an exploratory writing accentuation. She has gone through quite a long while mentoring K-12 understudies in numerous subjects, remembering for SAT prep, to assist them with getting ready for their advanced degree. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on the most proficient method to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. 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The Case of the Considerate Robbers

The Case of the Considerate Robbers It was the dead of winter in the smoggy capital city of Chile, encircled by the Andes mountains’ snow-capped peaks on one side and the vast Pacific Ocean on the other. Tucked into little apartments and host families and plagued nightly by the severe lack of central heating, about thirty MIT students tried to better their Spanish, interned at local companies, and wondered why they chose to go to the Southern Hemisphere during their summer. Look at all that smog yum! They soon settled into the monotonous routine of a 9 to 6 (or sometimes 8 to 7) work schedule, almost missing the fast pace of studies. Students also grew accustomed to the kisses on the right cheek when greeting and leaving a room and learned to like completos italianos (hot dogs with tomato, mayonnaise, and avocado) and the traditional empanadas, stuffed with meat, egg, and a singular olive. Common Chilean idioms, like “Qué fome” and “ ¿Cachai?”, slang that Spanish speakers anywhere else in the world would fail to understand, found their way into speech. On a particularly warm weekend, about twenty of the students booked a tour to the nearby gorge Cajón del Maipo, a pristine, tourist-filled reservoir that promised a breathtaking view of the Andes and a brief respite from the gray smoke spewing from Santiago’s factories. They trekked down the icy path into a reservoir filled with glassy aquamarine water, ran up the snow covered slopes with glee as if they had not just su rvived a brutal Boston winter, and took a plethora of group pictures and selfies. Fingers frostbitten and stomachs starving, the students were herded back into the van and driven to a peaceful, secluded riverside to enjoy a nice picnic of wine and a surprisingly delicious combination of cream cheese, soy sauce, sesame seeds, and pico de gallo on bread. After lounging around for a while, they piled back into the car but quickly realized something was amiss. “Has anyone seen my jacket?” Someone called from the back. “I’m missing my DSLR camera!” called another. The claims began to roll in. In total, four name brand jackets, about $100 in cash, an iPhone, a set of keys tagged with the apartment address, and a DSLR camera were gone. It was an incredibly smooth and strangely considerate operation. Passports, IDs, and backpacks were on the whole untouched, but the pockets of jackets and purses were thoroughly searched. There was no sign of entry on windows or doors, although the tour guides insisted that they had definitely secured the van before retreating to the picnic. All in all, it was a tragic end to a magical day, but a car karaoke session helped ease the worries. There was nothing much we could do, except fill out a routine police report and speculate about the potential involvement of the tour guides. So unfortunately, case not closed. Other than my lost jacket, exploring the city and working with the people there have gone smoothly and wonderfully. I got my first taste of working on code and projects that could be used in production at a startup focused on improving communication between local governments and their constituents, a worthy cause in today’s political climate. I met MIT people I might never have bumped into otherwise and wandered into churro cafes and circus conventions, all on MISTI’s dime. In case you dont know what MISTI is, the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives funds students’ internships and research positions abroad by giving them a stipend for accommodations, food, and a bit of travel! They have incredibly dedicated, industrious program managers, who fundraise, connect with sponsors, and place students in over 25 countries all over the world. Most companies and labs would love to have an MIT intern working with them, and all the people I’ve met on my trip have been so welcoming and eager to both teach me and learn from me. People are often surprised that students as young as us are already travelling the world and interning, and honestly, when I stop to think about it, Im pretty amazed to be given these opportunities as well. Its just one of the many things that make me so grateful for the trust and confidence MIT puts in our abilities to affect change, not only in our own communities, but also all over the world. Up next, adventures in Lima , so stay tuned! A smile of pure fear Post Tagged #Santiago

Friday, June 26, 2020

Government Youth Offending

Introduction The purpose of this dissertation is to see if the government policy for youth offending has reduced the amount of youth offenders and also if governments strategies are affective in order to tackle youth offending. Chapter 1 Define youth offending; what are youth offending and what crimes are classified as youth offending and what the major of youth crime activity is taken place. The change of crime in youths before and now. What is youth offending and what policies are used to deal with criminal activity youth offender. What types of crime are considered as offending for youth? What is Youth Offending?, Who Are Youth Offenders? Youth is considered in the criminal justice system a young person or child age from 10-17 as stated by the Youth justice board .A child or young person who breaks the Law and is guilty is classified as a youth offender. Youth crime can consist of different types of criminal actively such as anti- social behaviour, theft, assault and even murder. This is similar to adult crime as breaking the Law is considered as a criminal offence no matter the age. Youth crime can be proven to harm and be dangerous to the community. It could damage the future of the youth by having a life of crime. According to the House office Youth crime harms communities, creates a culture of fear and damages the lives of some of our most vulnerable young people ( .The impact of youth crime has caused a disturbance within society which has resulted in policies changing quite often in order to overcome youth crime. Out of the youth justice system young could be a different margin for example from seventeen to twenty-one in general terms is classified as young In many countries crime committed by young people and children has become a major battle of politicians. Many politicians believe that youth offenders should be prepared to receive the punishment for the crime they have committed. According to (Simon,2000) politicians across the political spectrum have demanded that if a young offenders are prepared to do the crime they should also be prepared to do the time and that in some cases they should do this time in the same place as adults (Pitts,J. (2003).) The government have become aware of youth offending and are taking it much more seriously the previously. Punishment has been considered is the main way youths should suffer the same as adults for the actions. Young people and crime have many similarities with the adult offenders. Both adult and youth may have a balance between punishment, rehabilitation and deterrence and that between the rights and responsibilities (including the victims) of offender. ( Pitts,J. (2003). p71) there are different types of sentences from discharges to custody and fines depending on the offence. The England and Wales criminal justice system identifies young people aged between ten and seventeen are classified as youth and are dealt with in a different justice system which is called the youth justice system. Youth offenders have its own courts, custodial institutions, professional personnel and in many cases sentences ( Kirton, D. (2005)) This has become the main part in the youth justice system as children and young peoples mentality and understanding are different to adults so therefore children and young people may not be fully aware and fully at fault for the offence. Youth justice system is a system created so treatment is the main priority of young people and children who are suffering from welfare and other problems as educational, poverty and drugs etc. The youth justice system would consider that the evidence regarding the youth offender and decided what is the best punishment or treatment need which is going to benefit the youth. This is done mainly to prevent the youth from offending again by tackling the problems before it could mean the youth is less likely to offend again. Some organisations consider twenty one year olds or even up to twenty five or thirty as young but according to the youth justice system over seventeen years of age is considered full responsible for the offence so the criminal justice system would deal with the case of over seventeen people. The youth justice believe that youths aged from ten to seventeen are not in the full state of mind compared to an adult for example if a ten year old was to kill someone they would not be liable for a first degree murder due to they cannot distinguish between right and wrong. some groups believe that youths who commit a offence should have the same punishments as adults and others believe that youths at ages from ten to seventeen cannot full be responsible for the action (Jamie bugler case two ten years old killed a child younger then them) Youth policies in the justice system regarding youth offending are mainly set by the government which have installed the youth justice board during the years of 1998 and 1999. Policies were set before by the government and still are mainly but the youth justice board is there to make sure organisations who are trying to prevent youth offending are doing their jobs. Policies such as the Crime and Disorder act in 1998 which was a policy set by the government to create multi-agency panels in order to achieve effectiveness and efficiency. Standards had to be achieved as it was consider as the biggest shake up in the youth justice system according to Jack straw (Pitts,J. (2003). P88). Policies could benefit for and against for example policies regarding social, economical, health and welfare were seen as the main policies for organisations who worked for youth offenders to apply such as the Treatment of youth offenders. Then policies regarding tougher punishments were put in to action now a more multi-agency with treatment and also punishment depending on evidence policy is present. Were it would be considered by a panel which would decided what would be the best method for the youth offender not to re-offend. The main policies regarding youth offenders are introduced by the government s rules and regulations for youth organisations, new legislations and Laws. The youth justice system was introduced policies in force were changing quite often as punishment was the main type of sentence but due to children and adults having their differences (mental, economical, knowledge). Duty of care for children and young people should be considered as from research according to Derek Kirton it could be said that many youth offenders suffer from poor welfare, economical issues, family, health and educational problems. Accoutring to the Home office statistics levels of youth offenders you have these problems are quite high. Punishment may not be considered the best method to help youths in welfare problems. As a result of this future policies changed in order to prevent youth offending by offering treatment instead of punishment. Policies may change depending on research and results as improvement may not be visible. The youth justice system is a system that is created to deal with young people who have offended as it is believed that the young should be treated differently for the offence as young people are not fully aware and knowledgeable as an adult. This system was first introduced in the nineteenth century as pressure from groups by the media, religious, and welfare believed that children are less aware of the offences they commit then an adult. Before the youth justice system was developed young people and children were no different to adults as youths would also be sentenced to the adult jail. After a short period of time when there was no differences for youths and adults, industrial schools were introduced for seven to fourteen year olds convicted of vagrancy( Pitts,J 2003).) as Newborn 1995 stated .these industrial schools were to keep youths out of adult prisons due to the level of corruption and brutality in the adult prisons. Youths and children would stay in the industrial school like it was a jail just for young people and children. The system for youths started to change even more as industrial schools started to expand and more children and young people were held there. As a result of this pressures from political groups due to the increasing level of crimes among youths was getting out of control and media and many off the public became aware of this. Informal social controls and the drunkenness, vice, violence and crime to which gave rise (Pitts,J 2003). It became a major scare as many believed that the justice system and other groups cannot control this crisis. As this crisis was mainly for social controls the media, police and politicians main priority was to control and to remove the crisis. As the level of crime was rising the method of the industrial schools should how unstable the policies and strategies were. it shows that the strategies and the policies of punishment is clearly not working as crime is escalating . During this time punishment was tough unlike today where children and young people have they own justice system and are not as tough on punishment as it was around two centuries ago. Then youths and children were punished similar as how adults were .The social controls were out of hand and it was decided by the government to create committees which would concentrate on the treatment (Pitts,J 2003)of the youth offender instead of punishment. The government created two committees which were Gladstone committee and the Lushingto committee (Pitts,J 2003) these committees were created to be lesstough on youths offenders as they believed that treatment instead of punishment would reduce crime. This may perhaps be that what the government wants to do deal with the problem before it occurs for example a child or young person may offend due to problems at home or even educational problems as a result the committees would try to help children or young people over come this problem as if not treated then a youth may be in a condition where they are not fully aware of offending (need example to back me up) custody was also introduced by the government as the offender could be confined. Treatment was also only offered if there was enough evidence to support the fact that the child was affected by any of the following sciences consisting of paediatrics, child psychology, criminology and penology. This was a newer form of youth justice introduced by the youth justice system, but responsibility was held by the juvenile courts according to (Pitts,J 2003). Chapter 2 Historical context of youth offending, what were the previous strategies and how were they implemented? What are the current strategies (ones that are used now) and what strategies are being considered for the future. What are the objectives of the strategies? The Youth Justice System. What it is, how it is used, the benefits and the weakness of the system. What are the objectives of the governments youth justice strategies. What objectives have been achieved and what are the aims of the government to achieve the target. Have the government met the objectives if so how The aim of the youth justice system is to reduce this major problem of youth crime by building safer communities and to tackle the problem of social exclusion (Home Office, 2008). Social exclusion has led individuals and groups to suffer as it has partitioned them to participate with society activities due to their socioeconomic factors. Chapter 3 What and How effective are the current strategies in place to deal with youth offenders.figures that show Yots etc are working , Talk about organisations such Yots, parenting schemes and other methods used by the government .. The positives and negatives, such as cost etc. what they are doing to try and achieve their aim. Talk about some youth programmes set up in order to reduce crime. Yots mainly but look at other services . In order to tackle youth crime the government introduced the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 where Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) where introduced. These teams are multi-agency bodies with the primary aim of preventing offending by children and young people. Their aim is also to prevent young people from re-offending in which support is given to them by the YOTs (Bateman et al, 2005). One of the areas covered by youth offending teams is to tackle anti-social behaviour which includes harassment of residents or passers-by verbal abuse, criminal damage, vandalism, noise nuisance, graffiti, engaging in threatening behaviour in, large groups, smoking or drinking alcohol under age, substance misuse, joy-riding, begging, prostitution, kerb-crawling, throwing missiles, assault and vehicle-related nuisance (YJB, 2005 pg 5). The old youth justice, proved by the Audit Commission (1996) caused high levels of crime such as vandalism, thefts and burglaries. This system was confirmed to be inefficient and expensive as it resulted to a little being done to tackle youth crime and showed high levels of re-offending. The Audit Commission in 1996 established a report Misspent Youth where many recommendations were highlighted for the new youth justice (Goldson, 2000). The key recommendation in the report was to carry out intervening with youth in the early stages of their career so that their offending behaviour can be targeted. The White Paper No More Excuses also stated that YOTs will need to, Deliver community intervention programmes to make youngsters face up to the consequences of their crimes and learn to change the habits and attitudes which lead them into offending and anti-social behaviour. The programmes might adopt techniques such as: group work; family group conferencing and mentoring (Home Office, 1997) Chapter 4 Is the emphasis tough on crime or tough on comers of crime? Look at the punishment and sentencing, public perception look at differences like police want tougher laws on youths but social workers think education and rehabilitation programmes are better .look at the Hansard arguments and news articles to see. How effective are the current strategies in place. Are they reducing the level of crime among youths? Are there different punishments for youths? Level of youths reoffending. Look in to Suggestions instead of punishments Chapter 5 Which interest groups are involved in creating youth offending policies, look at statistics from 2002/03and 2006/07 and compare the data see if the rates are falling etc and which crimes where low and high. Argue for and against punishment and prevention and punishment and rehabilitation. See in the results if punishment becoming harsher is better than the welfare state before and what is happing now such as Multi Agencies. Also look at which types of youth offend and reoffend the reasons behind this. The statistics from 2002/03 compared with 2006/07. What is found and where should the YJS change and forces on etc. The main aim of the Criminal Justice System (CJS) is to prevent crime, the police alone have been relatively ineffective agents of crime prevention due to crime being a multi-faceted in both its causes and effects (Bateman, 2007). Multi-agency is a process that the Audit Commission believed would play a vital role to divert young people from the courts and prevent them from re-offending in which programmes set up by the Youth Offending Teams which will help them to change and also to face up to the harm caused due to their behaviour (Goldson, 2000). Local authorities (LA) gained a huge statutory responsibility in which they had to implement a multi-agency response to youth crime; previously it had been up to the LA to determine how they did so. The Crime and Disorder Act (CDA) required all local authorities with social services and education responsibilities to replace social services youth justice team (Burnett, 2005 pg 106) with Youth Offending teams. Each team consisted of representatives from the local probation and police services, health, education and social services (Burnett, 2005 pg 106). 14 pilot Youth Inclusion and Support Panels (YISPs) were set up in April 2003 by the Youth Justice Board. This was to target those who were likely to be at the risk of offending, the age range targeted was 8-13 year olds (Youth Justice Board, 2003). The Youth Justice Board (YJB) was first established in 1998 by the Labour Government in which their focus was on the Youth Justice System. YOTs are monitored by the YJB where their performance is measured and aims and objectives are given to them resulting to broad range of expectations that YOTs are supposed to fulfil hence a need for a broad range of expertise within the teams. It is essential for YOTs to develop efficient administration of justice so that when a young person breaks the law; their case is handled and dealt effectively and efficiently. It is vital for the offender to take responsibility for their offence so therefore the YOTs aim is to confront the individual in an appropriate manner so that effective communication is implemented. This will enable them to intervene with one another and discuss factors which causes the individual at a risk of offending. Punishment must be given to the offender which is proportionate to the seriousness of their crime and encouraging reparation to the victims by the offender. Parent responsibilities are also taken account of by the YOTs and are reinforced. YOTs work with a range of services and interventions such as, housing authorities, social services, housing providers and voluntary groups ( ). The YJB sets out corporate targets for YOTs annually. The corporate objectives for 2006/07 to 2008/09 are divided into 3 sections: Reduce offending and the use of custody Support the youth justice system to reduce the number of first-time entrants to the youth justice system by 5% by March 2008 compared to the March 2005 baseline. Support the youth justice system to protect victims and communities by reducing re-offending by young offenders by 5% by March 2008 compared with the 2002/03 baseline, working towards a 10% reduction by the end of the decade. Support the youth justice system to, between 31 March 2005 and 31 March 2008, reduce the size of the under-18 custodial population by 10% through the implementation of the minimising the use of custody work programme. Improve outcomes for children and young people Support the youth justice system to improve the assessment of risk and need for young people who have offended, and improve their access to specialist and mainstream services that will address the factors identified. To ensure that YOTs have action plans in place to achieve equal treatment at local level for comparable offences by different ethnic groups and to deliver targeted prevention activity that substantially reduces local differences by ethnicity in recorded conviction rates, by March 2008. Safe and appropriate use of custody To ensure that all girls under 18 years of age who are remanded or sentenced to custody are accommodated in secure establishments that are separate from adults by October 2006, and replace 250 places for boys in shared adult sites with separate facilities by March 2008. (source: YJB, 2005 pg 6) These aims will help the members in the youth offending team to stay focus on the targets and will direct them to meet them, they are also able to carry out an effective service by monitoring the treatment of young offenders and reducing inequalities, improving access to mainstream services which will help to increase confidence in the youth justice system (YJB, 2005 pg 6). There are key aims that Rose Burnett has identified that underpin Youth Offending Teams that focus on preventing offending and effective practice is made easier by a multi-agency approach, that can respond to young people in an holistic fashion. Youth justice workers should join forces with other professionals this explored the argument regarding young people being related to problems such as truancy, drug abuse and family breakdown each being handled by separate agencies (Burnett, 2005 pg107). Due to YOTs this would prevent a duplication of effort, inconsistencies and differences in emphasis if the team worked effectively together tackling these problems (Burnett, 2005 pg107). All parties should share the aim of preventing offending as over time the approaches to the youth justice have altered which has caused a lot of confusion regarding the purpose and function of the youth justice system. The government established the paper No More Excuses in which they have stated their intention to break with the previous culture of youth justice where young peoples offending was exempt due to a concentration being on their needs rather than their deeds (Burnett, 2005 pg 107). The paper clearly identified the aims of reducing crime by young people which were given to the members of the Youth Offending Team (Burnett, 2005 pg 107). YOTs work in partnership who works in conjunction with all other departments in order to achieve the aims set out. The youth offending teams work in a range of services such as, courts and the prison services, they are also involved in complementary inter-agency initiatives, such as child protection committees and community safety partnerships. The goal is to provide a joined up, corporate approach to preventing youth offending. Both the Government and the youth justice board emphasised that YOTs were not intended to belong to any of the individual agencies. This is a partnership approach which is between all the parties (Burnett, 2005). There are many advantages of multi-agency working within a Youth Offending Team alongside disadvantages which cause areas of concern and which will have to be taken account of. To begin with the advantages of multi- agency working, by working within a Youth Offending Team will result to knowledge and skills being shared. Each member of the team will provide one another with the required information on an informal, ad hoc basis therefore there will be no need for them to write off for information or wait for a return phone call (Burnett, 2005 pg 109). This saves time and communication will be more effective and efficient. By working in the same office was believed to be a great advantage due to a quick access to information and advice (Burnett, 2004). A holistic approach is achieved due to all the representatives of all the relevant disciplines being under one room (Bateman et al, 2005 pg 109). If however, cases do arise which lay outside the expertise of the responsible officer then there is usually someone with the required experience, knowledge and skills in the particular area to handle the problem and also recommend suggestions (Burnett, 2005 pg 109). This therefore portrays that multi-agency teams appear to be very beneficial as they bring together seamless youth justice service closer (Burnett, 2005 pg 109). The availability of representatives from different services facilitate the referral of young people to those services (Burnett, 2005 pg 109. This reduces lengthy waiting lists and also complicated referral procedures that are likely to occur. Opportunities of having the right person in the right place at the right time (Burnett, 2005 pg 109) are increased which is hassle free and more convenient for individuals. For instance young people who offend and get into trouble, frequently may have mental health problems for this reason having a health worker in the Youth Offending Team, who is an employee of Children and Adolescent mental health services would improve the access of YOT kids to such mainstream services. The same theory can be applied with education and children out of school. This illustrates that multi-agency teams are well placed to reintegrate socially excluded young people into mainstream provision. Focusing on the disadvantages of multi-agency working shows that, a YOT consists of people from different occupational backgrounds; therefore, this may cause cultural differences especially in the process of decision making and may result to conflicts and misunderstandings between the staff. This will have a negative impact upon the service of the YOT and cause implications for effective practice. Each member of the Youth Offending Team is recognised as a team and not an individual therefore when problems do arise there will be a high risk on the group as a whole for example on effective communication amongst the individuals. Looking at recent statistics the Lets Talk about It report states for youth Offending Teams to work effectively, there needs to be effective joint working across specialities, 15% of the YOTs consisted of problems due to joint working between the specialist health and substance misuse workers and case managers. The reason for these problems was due to the lack of adequate procedures for the sharing of information that affected many Youth Offending Teams (Healthcare Commission, 2006). The multi-agency members may be part of one team but may receive different conditions to their service. For instance the operational managers might receive lower salaries than some of the practitioners under their supervision (Burnett, 2005 pg 109), this shows that conflicts may arise between the staff regarding different rewards being attained. This is also explored by Sampson et al (1988) where it can be seen that the police are often more dominating which results to them ignoring the multi agency team which may cause conflicts among the members of the team and shows how tensions between partners with different priorities can arise. The police are often enthusiastic proponents of the multi-agency approach but they tend to prefer to set the agendas and to dominate forum meetings and then to ignore the multi-agency framework when it suits their own needs (Sampson et al, 1998). There has been a debate whether the team members in a Youth Offending Team should be generalist or specialists. Research carried out on behalf of the YJB found out that, in practice many specialist health, education and substance misuse staff are under pressure to undertake generic youth justice duties. This shows an ongoing difficulty of obtaining specialist services from outside of the YOT and contributes to a dilution of specialist provision within it (Pitcher et al, 2004). A Youth Offending Team consists of members from different occupations for example a police officer or an education worker (Burnett, 2005 pg 109), by working in a YOT the members may lose their real identity and profession and for this reason they may not be able to bring their distinctive professional contribution into the YOT. There is a problem about generic versus specialist work, this looks at whether members in the YOT do a bit of everything or do work relating to their specialism therefore causes identity confusion. The work of multi-agency partnerships sounds good but the main question is does it work once its put in practice? Data from the Agency Public Protection Arrangements Annual Report 2005/06 (pg 21) shows five years on from the implementation of the Criminal Justice and Courts Services Act 2000 which established the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements, also known as MAPPA. Within the five years (2001-2006) multi-agency partnerships have gained an achievement on employing a safer society for all however there is still a lot for them to do and to ensure that arrangements are fit for their purpose and are applied across England and Wales. The main aim of the MAPPA is to make the communities safer and reducing re-offending (National Offender Management Service, 2005/6 pg 21). Multi-agency is something which was created by the government in order for public services could work together to reduce costs, crime and create a more organised justice system. multi agency is the way forward according to the government who believe authorities such as police, social workers , welfare and Yots will work together this is to have a better understanding of the situation and there for make a more accurate decision. Punishment, prevention and rehabilitation issues would descused regarding the youth offender. It would depend on the crime, social wellbeing, education, poverty etc. Although research shows that multi agency partnership works but there are also many areas and cases created that should be looked into for improvement. This can be seen through the case of Victoria Climbie which took place in February, 2000. Victoria aged eight was living with her aunt Marie-Therese and her aunts boy friend Carl Manning in London. Victorias parents had sent her with her aunt due them believing she would gain a better future but instead she was suffering abuse by Carl Manning that led to her death. Inquiries after her death took place by Lord Laming which showed that multi-agency partnerships are partly responsible for the death due to the doctors, police and social workers being aware of the situation which could have been tackled and could have saved a life but instead there was a lack of communication amongst the multi-agencys which caused them to be under the assumption that another agency had taken control of the case. For this reason Victoria was unable to gain the support and treatment that she required. This case allowed the work of multi-agency partnerships to be looked into to point out the areas of concern that had to be developed upon. One of the major concerns was the lack of staff. New approaches were introduced regarding children which is evident in the Green paper in 2003 where there government established Every child matters that enabled children to retrieve a better and healthier life, it also addressed many changes to the work of multi-agency partnerships work such as data being accessed by all members in the agencies and recorded accurately, finance was also given (100,000) in order for them to develop upon sharing information between each profession. Children were also give more rights in which they were able to contact more than one service at anytime and there was also a need for assessments to be carried out which would require multi-agency teams to share data. These points will enable each member of the team to work more effectively alongside one another ( Another problem that has encountered can be seen through a recent report called Lets talk about it by the Healthcare commission (2006) which shows that there is a problem with health and education not meeting standards. The report shows that children and young people who offend have more health needs than the non-offending population of childrenThe provision of healthcare for them has improved, but it remains inadequate. Therefore the healthcare organisations are required to contribute to youth justice in their area in order to reduce the factors that play a part in offending. The report portrays findings from 50 Youth Offending Teams in England and Wales carried out from September 2003 to April 2006. The findings illustrate that services should be made more accessible for children aged 16 and 17 as this is the age where individuals are likely to carry out serious crimes. Healthcare workers within the multi-agency partnerships provided services for the offender based on their experience and specialities rather than the needs of the individual which can have a positive and a negative response. Data shows that from 2004 onwards, CDRPs required to undertake an annual appraisal of their health. To be changed to 6 months following a review, however out of the 20 projects studied over 18 months: 4 had completed, 6 still aiming to implement plans, 6 had abandoned some of their plans and 4 had made very little progress (Hedderman et al, 2001 cited by Bateman, 2007) This engaged problems within the health and voluntary sector. Reference Audit Commission (1996) Misspent Youths: Young People and Crime, London: Audit Commission Burnett R (2005) Youth Offending Teams in Bateman, T and Pitts, J (Eds) The RHP companion to youth justice, Russell House Community care [Online] Available at: (Accessed 31st March 2008). Goldson, B, (2000), The New Youth Justice, Lyme Regis: Russell House Publishing Healthcare Commision, (2006), Lets Talk about It, [Online], Available at:, (Accessed: 1st April 2008) Home Office (2008) Youth Crime, [Online] Available at Accessed on 2nd April 2008 Home Office (1997) No More Excuses: A New Approach to Tackling Youth Crime in England and Wales. Cmd. 3809. London: HMSO Kirton, D. (2005). Young people and Crime. In: Hale, C, Hayward, K, Wahidin, A and Wincup, E Criminology. New York: Oxford University Press. 385- 402. National Offender Management Service, (2005/6) Keeping Communities Safe: Cambridgeshire Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements Annual Report 2005/06 [Online] Available at: plansreportspolicies/reports/mappa20052006.pdf (Accessed 2nd April 2008) Pitcher, J., Bateman, T., Johnston, V Cadman, S, (2004), The Provision of Health, Education and Substance Misuse Workers in Youth Offending Teams and The Needs of Young People Supervised by Youth Offending Teams, London: Youth Justice Board Pitts,J. (2003). Youth Justice in England and Wales. In: Matthews, R and Young, J The New politics of Crime and Punishment. Devon: Willan Publishing. 71-97. Sampson, A., Stubbs, P., Smith, D., Pearson, G and Blagg, H (1988) Crime, Localities and the Multi-Agency Approach, The British Journal of Criminology 28(4) 478-493 YJB, (2005) Guidance: A guide to the role of Youth Offending Teams in dealing with anti-social behaviour, London [Online] Available at: Publications/Resources /Downloads/ ASBGuidance.pdf (Accessed 1st April 2008) Youth Justice Board, (2003), Speaking out: the Views of Young People, Parents and Victims about the Youth Justice System and Interventions to Reduce Offending, London: Youth Justice Board

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Sociocultural Theory Of Second Language Acquisition

The sociocultural theory of second language acquisition has provided me with the strongest reasons for reconsidering my previous views on second language learning. Vygotsky proposed a sociocultural theory that is very influential within the field of second language learning. The focus was on the idea that all learning is primarily social. The connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they interact with one another are crucial. Through interaction in shared experiences new knowledge is obtained. This perspective emphasizes the social nature of learning and examines the complex and dynamic social interaction involved in the process of learning a second language. According to Vygotsky the cognitive and social processes in acquiring a second language are inseparable. Social interaction has a vital role in the process of cognitive development. Individuals start out in society and culture and only become individualized when they separate themselves from what is taki ng place. Learning takes place in sociocultural contexts and behavior is learned by reacting to other people. Information is gained first socially and then becomes internalized. Vygotsky thought that learning took place on two different levels. Learning took place on the first level by interacting with others and then on the second level information is internalized into the individual’s mental structure. He talks about two different functions inter-mental and intra-mental. IntermentalShow MoreRelatedSociocultural Theory And Second Language Learning902 Words   |  4 PagesSociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning â€Å"Language is the most pervasive and powerful cultural artefact that humans possess to mediate their connection to the world, to each other, and to themselves† [Lantolf Thorne 2006:201]. 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Discussion of the socioeducational model in relation to L2 writing motivation will follow. ResearchRead MoreSecond Language Acquisition And Identity Formation1531 Words   |  7 PagesSecond Language Acquisition and Identity Formation Research Question: â€Å"What role does learning a second language play in the way one shapes their identity?† Background: Identity is subjective, not only to the individual to which the identity belongs, but also the way in which others perceive identity. This means that identity is not solely an individual event, but also a social one. Without social practices, such as identifying with specific cultures and norms, how would one know with which customsRead MoreTeaching Language Acquisition For English As Additional Language Children Essay1437 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Language empowers a child to express his thoughts and desires, achieve his goals, and form relationships with others. 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This is the same issue when an English speaker attempts to learn another language especially the Middle Eastern or Asian Languages. There are several hypotheses and theories concerning the language learning difficulties from different